wide panoramic scenes can easily be fitted into the fixed rectangular frame of a digital SLR. The problem is that a wide-angle lens extends the field of view both in the vertical as well as the horizontal direction, thus including a lots of sky or foreground in the frame with the main subject just being lost somewhere.

One solution would be to crop in photograph and exclude the areas from top and bottom. This would lead to pixel loss as the pixels would be drastically reduced from the original count. A typical panoramic image is much more wider than it is taller, so at least half or more of the original area is lost.

Even if you shoot at your camera’s maximum resolution settings, this may
not leave you with enough pixels to make a decent-sized enlargement. The best way to create a panoramic picture is to take a series of shots of one section of the view at a time, then “stitch” them together on the computer to make a seamless whole. As a result, you get a picture with far more pixels, and more detail, than your camera could capture with a single shot. You can also shoot a far greater angle of view than any lens could provide—the technique can even be used to create a 360°

view. Use a non-wide zoom setting, or standard lens, to avoid distortion, and ensure that each frame in the sequence overlaps the last by about one third. A tripod with a panning head will help keep the horizon at the same level, but is not essential. 

Stitching -

Once the frames in the panoramic sequence have been shot, stitching them together on a computer is relatively straightforward. Image editing Softwares and computer programs offer features that will merge selected files automatically, Some low-cost software designed specially for photo-stitching are also available. Although these applications will usually alighn the pictures in the right place, you will need to do some manual retouching work to completely hide or adjust the seams and any other aligning errors. The resulting panorama may also need to be cropped or straightened at the edges if the program is not automatically doing it. 

360 degrees virtual tours- These are also created by softwares with a panorama being the starting point.